Tutkimukset

Blogi on muuttanut. Tämä sivun uusin versio löytyy uudesta blogista.


”Kyllähän jotkut potilaat sitä käyttävät ja sanovat sen auttavan, mutta aihetta ei ole vielä tutkittu riittävästi.”
— Lasse Lääkäri

Olen koonnut listaa PubMed-tietokannasta löytyvistä tieteellisistä tutkimuksista, artikkeleista ja tutkimuskatsauksista, joita on julkaistu MS-tautiin ja aiheisiin kannabis, kannabinoidit ja endo­kannabinoidi­järjestelmä liittyen. PMID-linkin kautta pääsee PubMed-tietokannasta löytyvään tiivistelmään. Osa artikkeleista ja tutkimuksista löytyy maksutta netistä html- tai pdf-muodossa.

PubMed on U.S. National Library of Medicinen (Yhdysvaltain lääketieteellisen kirjaston) palvelu, jossa on yli 18 miljoonaa tiivistelmää ja sitaattia MEDLINE-tietokannasta ja lääketieteellisistä aikakausijulkaisuista 1950-luvulta lähtien. PubMedissä on myös linkit internetistä löytyvien artikkeleiden kokonaisiin versioihin (jotka valitettavasti usein ovat maksullisia) ja muita aiheeseen liittyviä resursseja.


  1. Check WA (1979). Marijuana may lessen spasticity of MS. JAMA 1979 Jun 8;241(23):2476. PMID: 439328.
  2. Petro DJ (1980). Marihuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity. Psychosomatics 1980, 21: 81–85. PMID: 7360860. [html, katkelma].
  3. Petro DJ et al (1981). Treatment of human spasticity with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1981 Aug–Sep; 21: 413–416. PMID: 6271839. [html].
  4. Clifford D (1983). Tetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis. Annals of Neurology 1983 Jun; 13(6): 669–671. PMID: 6309074.
  5. Ungerleider J et al (1987). Delta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse 1987; 7: 39–50. PMID: 2831701.
  6. Meinck H et al (1989). Effects of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology 1989 Feb; 236(2): 120–122. PMID: 2709054. [html].
  7. Lyman et al (1989). Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol: a novel treatment for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 1989 Jun;23(1):73–81. PMID: 2542370.
  8. Brenneisen et al (1996). The effect of orally and rectally administered delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996 Oct;34(10):446–52. PMID: 8897084.
  9. Consroe P et al (1997). The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis. European Neurology 1997; 38: 44–48. PMID: 9252798.
  10. Gowing L et al (1998). Therapeutic use of cannabis: clarifying the debate. Drug and Alcohol Review 1998 Dec; 17(4): 445–452. PMID: 16203511.
  11. Hamann W, di Vadi PP (1999). Analgesic effect of the cannabinoid analogue nabilone is not mediated by opioid receptors. Lancet. 1999 Feb 13;353(9152):560. PMID: 10028992. [html, katkelma]
  12. Achiron A et al (2000). Dexanabinol (HU-211) effect on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: implications for the treatment of acute relapses of multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neuroimmunology 200 Jan 3; 102: 26–31. PMID: 10626663.
  13. Baker D et al (2000). Cannabinoids control spasticity and tremor in a multiple sclerosis model. Nature 2000 Mar 2; 404: 84–87. PMID: 10716447.
  14. Baker D et al (2001). Endocannabinoids control spasticity in a multiple sclerosis model. FASEB J. 2001 Feb;15(2):300–302. Epub 2000 Dec 8. PMID: 11156943. [pdf].
  15. Pertwee RG (2002). Cannabinoids and multiple sclerosis. Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Aug;95(2):165–174. PMID: 12182963.
  16. Wade DT et al (2003). A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clin Rehabil. 2003 Feb;17(1):21–29. PMID: 12617376.
  17. Croxford JL (2003). Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in CNS disease. CNS Drugs. 2003;17(3):179-202. PMID: 12617697.
  18. Lynch ME, Clark AJ (2003). Cannabis reduces opioid dose in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2003 Jun;25(6):496–498. PMID: 12782429. [html, katkelma].
  19. Pryce G et al (2003). Cannabinoids inhibit neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis. Brain 2003 Oct;126(Pt 10):2191–2202. Epub 2003 Jul 22. PMID: 12876144. [html].
  20. Page SA et al (2003). Cannabis use as described by people with multiple sclerosis. Can J Neurol Sci. 2003 Aug; 30:201–205. PMID: 12945941.
  21. Zajicek J et al (2003). Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003 Nov 8;362(9395): 1517–26. PMID: 14615106. [pdf].
  22. Metz L, Page S (2003). Oral cannabinoids for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: will attitude continue to limit use? Lancet 2003 Nov 8; 362(9395):1513. PMID: 14615102.
  23. Notcutt et al (2004). Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ’N of 1’ studies. Anaesthesia 2004 May;59(5):440–52. PMID: 15096238.
  24. Svendsen KB et al (2004). Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial. BMJ. 2004 Jul 31;329(7460):253. Epub 2004 Jul 16. PMID: 15258006. [html], [pdf].
  25. Vaney C et al (2004). Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Multiple Sclerosis 2004 Aug; 10(4): 417–424. PMID: 15327040. [pdf].
  26. Brady et al (2004). An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 2004 Aug; 10(4): 425–433. PMID: 15327041.
  27. Wade et al (2004). Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients. Multiple Sclerosis 2004 Aug; 10(4): 434–441. PMID: 15327042.
  28. Croxford JL, Miller SD (2004). Towards cannabis and cannabinoid treatment of multiple sclerosis. Drugs Today (Barc). 2004 Aug;40(8):663–676. PMID: 15510238.
  29. Pryce G, Baker D (2005). Emerging properties of cannabinoid medicines in management of multiple sclerosis. Trends Neurosci. 2005 May; 28(5):272–276. PMID: 15866202. [pdf].
  30. Jackson SJ et al (2005). Cannabinoids and neuroprotection in CNS inflammatory disease. J Neurol Sci. 2005 Jun 15; 233(1–2):21–25. PMID: 15894331.
  31. Rog et al (2005). Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2005 Sep 27; 65(6):812–819. PMID: 16186518.
  32. Zajicek J et al (2005). Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study: Safety and efficacy data for 12 months follow up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2005 Dec; 76(12):1664–1669. PMID: 16291891.
  33. Freeman RM et al (2006). The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: A multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS). Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Nov;17(6):636–641. Epub 2006 Mar 22. PMID: 16552618.
  34. Witting et al (2006). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disrupts endocannabinoid-mediated neuroprotection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 18;103(16):6362–7. Epub 2006 Mar 29. PMID: 16571660. [html].
  35. Shohami E, Mechoulam R (2006). Multiple sclerosis may disrupt endocannabinoid brain protection mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006 Apr 18;103(16):6087–8. Epub 2006 Apr 10. PMID: 16606822. [html].
  36. Wade DT et al (2006). Long-term use of a cannabis-based medicine in the treatment of spasticity and other symptoms in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2006 Oct; 12(5):639–645. PMID: 17086911.
  37. Chong et al (2006). Cannabis use in patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 2006 Oct; 12(5): 646–651. PMID: 17086912.
  38. Ware MA et al (2006) Evaluation of herbal cannabis characteristics by medical users: a randomized trial. Harm Reduct J. 2006 Nov 13;3:32. PMID: 17101054. [html].
  39. Collin C et al (2007). Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol. 2007 Mar;14(3):290–296. PMID: 17355549. [html].
  40. Russo EB et al (2007). Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine. Chem Biodivers. 2007 Aug;4(8):1729–43. PMID: 17712817.
  41. Centonze et al (2007). The endocannabinoid system is dysregulated in multiple sclerosis and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Brain 2007 Oct; 130(Pt 10):2543–2553. Epub 2007 Jul 11. PMID: 17626034. [html].
  42. Pertwee RG (2007). Cannabinoids and multiple sclerosis. Mol Neurobiol. 2007 Aug;36(1):45–59. Epub 2007 Jun 26. PMID: 17952649. [katkelma, pdf].
  43. Rog et al (2007). Oromucosal delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: an uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial. Clin Ther. 2007 Sep;29(9):2068–79. PMID: 18035205.
  44. Croxford et al (2008). Cannabinoid-mediated neuroprotection, not immunosuppression, may be more relevant to multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2008 Jan;193(1-2):120–9. Epub 2007 Nov 26. PMID: 18037503.
  45. Wilsey B et al (2008). A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of cannabis cigarettes in neuropathic pain. J Pain. 2008 Jun;9(6):506–21. Epub 2008 Apr 10. PMID: 18403272. [pdf].
  46. Hosking RD, Zajicek JP (2008). Therapeutic potential of cannabis in pain medicine. Br J Anaesth. 2008 Jul;101(1):59–68. Epub 2008 May 29.PMID: 18515270. [html].
  47. Baker D, Pryce G (2008). The endocannabinoid system and multiple sclerosis. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14(23):2326–36. PMID: 18781983.
  48. Mestre L et al (2009). A cannabinoid agonist interferes with the progression of a chronic model of multiple sclerosis by downregulating adhesion molecules. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009 Feb;40(2):258–66. Epub 2008 Nov 19. PMID: 19059482.
  49. Malfitano AM et al (2008). Cannabinoids in the management of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2008 Oct;4(5):847-53. PMID: 19183777. [html].
  50. Iuvone T et al (2009). Cannabidiol: a promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders? CNS Neurosci Ther. 2009 Winter;15(1):65-75. PMID: 19228180.
  51. Zhang M et al (2009). Modulation of Cannabinoid Receptor Activation as a Neuroprotective Strategy for EAE and Stroke. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2009 Mar 3. PMID: 19255856. [html], [pdf].
  52. Jean-Gilles L et al (2009). Plasma endocannabinoid levels in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2009 Aug 19. PMID: 19695579.
  53. Kubajewska I, Constantinescu CS (2009). Cannabinoids and experimental models of multiple sclerosis. Immunobiology. 2009 Sep 16. PMID: 19765854.
  54. Rahn EJ, Hohmann AG (2009). Cannabinoids as pharmacotherapies for neuropathic pain: from the bench to the bedside. Neurotherapeutics. 2009 Oct;6(4):713-37. PMID: 19789075. [html].
  55. Hornby P, Sharma M (2010). Standardized cannabis in multiple sclerosis: a case report. Cases J. 2010 Jan 6;3:7. PMID: 20076809. [html].
  56. Smith PF (2010). New approaches in the management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis patients: role of cannabinoids. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2010 Mar 3;6:59-63. PMID: 20234785. [html].
  57. Rossi S et al (2010). The endocannabinoid system in the inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes of multiple sclerosis and of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Exp Neurol. 2010 Jul;224(1):92-102. Epub 2010 Mar 29. PMID: 20353778.
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  59. Gowran A et al (2010). The Multiplicity of Action of Cannabinoids: Implications for Treating Neurodegeneration. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2010 Sep 28. PMID: 20875047.
  60. Capasso R et al (2011). Inhibitory Effect of Standardized Cannabis sativa Extract and Its Ingredient Cannabidiol on Rat and Human Bladder Contractility. Urology. 2011 Feb 8. PMID: 21310467.
  61. Zajicek JP, Apostu VI (2011). Role of cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis. CNS Drugs. 2011 Mar 1;25(3):187-201. PMID: 21323391.
  62. Sánchez AJ, García-Merino A (2011). Neuroprotective agents: Cannabinoids. Clin Immunol. 2011 Mar 17. PMID: 21420365.
  63. Kozela E et al (2011). Cannabidiol inhibits pathigenic T-cells, decreases spinal microglial activation and ameliorates multiple sclerosis-like disease in C57BL/6 mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Mar 30. PMID: 21449980.
  64. Sastre-Garriga J et al (2011). THC and CBD oromucosal spray (Sativex(®)) in the management of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011 Apr 1. PMID: 21456949.
  65. Rossi S et al (2011). Cannabinoid CB1 receptors regulate neuronal TNF-α effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Apr 4. PMID: 21473912.
  66. Hasseldam H, Fryd Johansen F (2011). Cannabinoid Treatment Renders Neurons Less Vulnerable Than Oligodendrocytes in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Int J Neurosci. 2011 Jun 15. PMID: 21671839.

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